You’ve heard of a traditional IRA.
You’ve heard of a Roth IRA.
So what is a backdoor Roth IRA?
A backdoor IRA can allow you to convert your nondeductible traditional IRA contribution to a Roth IRA, even if your income is too high to make a Roth IRA contribution.
Let’s take a look at how it works.
What Is a Backdoor Roth IRA?
A backdoor Roth IRA is an IRS-sanctioned loophole that lets high-income earners reap the benefits of a Roth without violating the income limits.
There’s a reason Americans love Roth IRAs—they come with some major tax benefits. You pay taxes on your contributions up front, but then your investments grow 100% tax-free. Additionally, when you start taking withdrawals in retirement, none of that money counts as taxable income. It’s a very attractive option for those who can qualify.
But that’s the problem—most high-income earners don’t qualify for a Roth IRA. As of 2023, you’re not eligible to contribute to a Roth IRA if you make at least $153,000 as an individual or $228,000 as a married couple.
This begs the question: How can you enjoy the sweet tax perks that come with a Roth IRA if your income is over these limits? The solution is the backdoor Roth.
How Does a Backdoor Roth IRA Work?
Let’s say your income exceeds the legal limit for a Roth IRA, but you still want to fund an account. First, you will need to open a traditional IRA and fund it with non-deductible contributions. Then, you will immediately convert your non-deductible IRA to a Roth IRA and repeat this process each year in order to take advantage of tax-free growth.
In this scenario, you can avoid the IRA income limits, but you cannot avoid the annual contribution limits. This means that you can fund a maximum of $6,500 in 2023 ($7,500 if you’re over the age of 50) per year. This may seem small, but over time you can amass a sizable retirement savings, especially when combined with other tax-advantaged retirement vehicles.
A backdoor Roth IRA is a useful wealth strategy that can save you thousands in taxes. But there’s even more to it than that.
Unlike traditional retirement accounts, backdoor Roth IRAs aren’t subject to required minimum distributions (RMDs). This means you won’t be forced to start taking withdrawals—and paying taxes on those withdrawals—when you reach age 73.
This is yet another point in favor of backdoor Roths: estate planning benefits. With no required RMDs, you’re free to let your account balance grow and build for as long as you’d like. Then, you can pass it on to your heirs if you wish to do so.
Considerations of a Backdoor Roth IRA
There are some things to be aware of when considering a backdoor Roth.
Pro Rata Rule
Backdoor Roths only work if you have zero to very low Traditional IRA assets. What happens if you have both pre-tax and non-deductible after-tax contributions in your traditional IRA? Unfortunately, you cannot choose to only transfer the after-tax contributions. This is because of the pro rata rule.
Pro rata means that taxation is based on percentages or ratios. If 60% of all of your combined traditional IRA contributions were made pre-tax and 40% were made after-tax, then those are the percentages they use to determine the taxability of the conversion. No matter how much you convert or which specific IRAs it comes out of, 60% of the funds will be considered pre-tax (and therefore taxable) and 40% will be considered after-tax (and therefore tax-free).
If you have a substantial amount of pre-tax savings, you may be able to utilize a Mega Backdoor Roth strategy instead. In this strategy, you would fund after-tax contributions to a Roth 401(k) that can grow tax-free if utilized properly. Most 401(k) plans don’t allow for this provision, but if it is available to you, we can help walk you through it.
Backdoor Roths are irreversible. That means if you converted too much at once and got pushed into a higher marginal tax bracket, you can’t take it back. But this can usually be avoided by keeping your conversion amounts to the annual contribution limits.
You will also need to consider those tricky state taxes. If you live in a state that has income tax, you’ll likely owe state taxes on your backdoor Roth conversion in addition to federal taxes. However, some states exempt part of your distribution if you’re over a certain age.
Backdoor Roth IRAs also have two five-year rules to keep in mind. The first rule says that you must wait at least five years from your first contribution before you can make a penalty-free withdrawal from your Roth IRA—even if you’re over age 59½.
The second five-year rule states that each of your backdoor Roth conversions has its own five-year period. For example, if you do a conversion in 2023 and another in 2024, you’ll have to wait until at least 2028 to access the first conversion and 2029 to access the second.
As with anything tax-related, consult a wealth advisor to position your money in a way that minimizes tax liability and maximizes growth.
A Backdoor Roth IRA Could Be the Answer
If you’ve disregarded Roth IRAs because of your income, a backdoor Roth IRA could be the answer. At GLH&C Financial Services, we have the resources to help in every stage of planning, with the ultimate goal of helping you achieve what’s most important to you. To learn more, email me at email@example.com or give me a call at 916-276-8677 to see if I am the right fit to help you pursue your ideal financial future.
James Callens is a financial advisor at GLH&C Financial Services, a full-service, comprehensive wealth management firm. Jim has over 30 years of experience in the financial industry and uses his extensive resources and knowledge to help his clients experience simplicity and clarity in their financial lives. Jim spent more than 20 years working for GE Financial Advisors, both in its insurance services department and as a regional manager and financial advisor. He took part in GE’s Six Sigma Quality Training program and completed the National Association of Life Underwriter’s four-year LUTCF course. Jim also earned his certificate in financial planning from the University of California at Davis. In 2011, Jim combined his own firm, Callens Financial Group, with GLH Financial Services, creating GLH&C Financial Services, so he could provide even more value to his clients.
He has served as a board member for several nonprofit organizations and has been involved in Cub Scouts leadership and youth sports coaching. Jim lives in Folsom, California, with his wife, Melissa, and his four children, Jacob, Kristen, Grant, and Andrew. Together, they enjoy outdoor activities like kayaking, bicycling, and vacationing at Lake Tahoe. To learn more about Jim, connect with him on LinkedIn.